Tag Archives: future

Shifting Patterns in AP/IB Credits

I received a report from the Dean’s office today about the number of AP/IB credits we have awarded in the College of Humanities and Social Sciences over the past three years (2010-2012). The numbers are interesting, I think, only because they show where we are headed in the coming decade, namely, toward a place where more and more of our general education curriculum is being delivered by high schools rather than by us.

In 2012 our college handed out 6% more AP/IB credits than we did in 2010 and in history that increase was just under 12%, with the largest amount of both the credits awarded and the increase being in U.S. history.

The 424 credits we gave out in 2012 works out to 141 seats unfilled in our general education courses, which equates to around 7% of our enrollment target for courses at the 100 (introductory) level. [enrollment targets here] While those 424 credits work out to well under 1% of our overall enrollment target for history enrollments, if all of those students were paying in-state tuition (which they aren’t, obviously), they represent just a whisker over $166,000 in tuition revenue. Were they all paying out of state tuition (which they aren’t), the lost revenue would be $487,000. So that’s the range of tuition lost: $166,000 – $487,000.

Given that all the economic trends seem to be against us these days — decreasing state investment in higher education (everywhere, not just in Virginia), pressure both from legislatures and from the market to hold the line on tuition, demands that more and more students graduate from college every year, and so on — we cannot afford to give away somewhere between $166,000 and almost $500,000 and expect the university to continue to fund us at the level we are currently funded at.

But we don’t have any choice.

Each year, more and more students are enrolling in AP or IB programs at America’s high schools and so with each passing year we can expect to give away more and more credits to those students who score well on their tests, because refusing to give them credit is not one of our options any more. I have already written about this problem and its associated issues (more and more students going to community colleges, rapid growth in the market for online education), so in some ways, this AP/IB report was just another confirmation of what’s been worrying me about our future.


Future of Higher Education Conference (6)

The fourth panel at #masonfuture included Bryan Alexander of NITLE, Robert Beichner of NC State, Anne Moore and Terri Bourdon of Virginia Tech, and Kevin Clark and Mark Sample of Mason. Their topic is “Beyond the Lecture Hall: Technology and Student Learning.”

Beichner showed us a model of the “scale up” classroom that they use at NC State that is drawn from the design first pioneered at MIT. Mason has just about finished one of those rooms for our engineering program. Because it seats 80 students, and is largely dedicated to the engineers, and was extraordinarily expensive to install (and will be equally expensive to maintain), we won’t see many of these rooms on our campus in the near future, nor with the folks in humanities and social sciences have much access to it. But I plan to do an observation in the room one day soon when it comes on line so I can see how well it is living up to its potential.

This sort of innovative design of space around learning outcomes is something I’m spending a lot of time thinking about and working on this semester. I’m on two committees — one explicitly devoted to this topic, and another devoted to the design of a brand new building — that are grappling with the intersection between space and learning.

One point I’m been making in those committees is that as our students get more and more connected to the global market for higher education, we need to design new learning spaces that facilitate rather than hinder these connections. So, for instance, I can imagine a future where small groups of students (3-5 let’s say) are clustered around larger monitors in a residence hall or an academic building taking a course in Moscow or Shanghai. We do not have such learning spaces on our campus right now, but are going to need them soon. Very soon.

Clark described his work with gaming and at risk students — using games to help these students prepare for the challenges of higher education. Our game design program is one of the fastest growing at Mason and Clark’s work is bringing an important educational dimension to the work of that program. One of the things I love about this program is that, as I argued yesterday in my remarks, the Internet is now a space of creation for students and this program teaches students to create media rather than consume it.

Moore and Bourdon previewed the “Math Emporium” at Virginia Tech.  Moore ended her brief introduction to the Emporium with a great bit of data — how much money Tech is saving on a per student basis by using the Math Emporium to help deliver mathematics education to very large numbers of students.

Bourdon called the Emporium a “comprehensive learning space,” by which she meant a mixture of traditional space (tutoring lab, etc.), but also online spaces. Tech did this all the hard way — wrote all their own course materials, etc. — which isn’t necessary today given the number of open source tools out there.

Mark Sample told us about his “social pedagogy” and used the example of writing about the word “alien” in one of his classes using Twitter and forcing students to write in just 140 characters. The best takeaway from this presentation in my view, is that we can actually think differently about such key concepts at “writing” and still accomplish our pedagogical goals.

Bryan Alexander then gave a brief overview of the landscape of MOOCs — a much bigger landscape than the over-hyped Coursera/U-da-City/EdX model we’re hearing so much about. One of the things Bryan pointed to is that all of these models are dependent on institutional subvention, but, as he said, it won’t be long before institutions figure out how to start offering credits (Antioch University already is) and new business models that won’t depend on subvention.

A question that keeps banging around in my head — yesterday and today — is how we might be able to un-silo our institution to develop new business models that remain focused on education while being attentive to our bottom line. I am convinced that as long as we live in our institutional silos, we have no chance to prosper in the coming two decades. But shattering those institutional silos, silos that have been in existence for decades (here, centuries elsewhere) is going to be extraordinarily difficult.

Maybe that’s our biggest challenge for the coming decade: how to make it possible for Mason to dance to the new tunes that the advent of a global market for education is performing?

In the Q&A, moderator Steve Pearlstein, pressed the panelists on the institutional political dimension of institutional change. It’s hard when your moderator is a Pulitzer Prize winning journalist, because he does tend to want people to answer his questions, not the questions they want to answer. The issue he kept pressing on was the speakers to take a position on how much leverage institutional leaders have when trying to get tenured faculty to change how they teach.

To try to get at an answer, he asked which level of administration was going to have the best change to bring about change: president, provost, department chair. Bourdon’s answer was department chair. Moore said department chair, but only if the dean stood behind them. Sample said “enthusiasm is not what gets [faculty to change].” Instead, it’s seeing other people being successful, which is why our teaching needs to be as open as possible. Given that I’ve been making this same argument since 1999-2000, I have to agree.

Future of Higher Education Conference (5)

After being forced to miss the final session yesterday (sorry Dan), I’m back at it at the #masonfuture conference. The day began with some tentative summary of Day 1 by President Cabrera, who charged the room with continuing to think about “preconceived notions we came with that we are now questioning.”

One of the notions that I came with that I continue to question is the degree to which universities like ours can find our way into the future with our current staffing patterns. As a recent report by Ernst and Young argues, universities in Australia cannot survive to 2025 with their current business models. A big problem, the authors argue, is that all the universities in Australia (and I suspect in the U.S. as well) have become too staff heavy and will need to rebalance their staffing patterns if they are going to become more nimble in coming decades. The authors argue that faculty represent income centers, while staff represent cost centers, and that unless these two are brought into balance, universities are in big trouble.

Given the clear interest in pushing online education coming out of the rhetoric of this conference, universities like Mason are going to have to take a long, hard look at how we might implement these sorts of sweeping changes without a significant addition of staff to make it possible. Online is not even remotely frictionless, and staffing the effort will be very, very expensive.

Will we add staff? Or will we repurpose existing staff? We don’t have the money for the former, and if we do the latter, what things will those staff stop doing. This is a conversation we are not having at this conference and I’ll be interested to see if we do.

Our morning plenary speaker was Suzanne Walsh of the Gates Foundation who began with a question: How might we use data to make better and different decisions? A key part of her argument is that universities are not doing a good job mining data about their students to maximize institutional success. In this she promoted the work of Civitas Learning and their approach to using data to help universities to make better decisions about enrollment and retention.

For example, one of the things she talked about was using data to identify courses that promote or hinder student retention. I’m sure that some of what she described seemed “new” to some of the people in the room. Alas, what she was describing really isn’t new at all. In my former life I was an enrollment management consultant and we were doing this sort of thing in the late 1980s with our clients–using good old fashioned main frame computers and good old fashioned multiple regression analysis.

The only thing that seemed “new” here was the very nice visual displays of those data. It’s certainly much easier to see connections in the data if the connected data are all purple or red, or are scaled to point to those that seem more interesting than others. But, as Edward Tufte has been grumping for decades, these sorts of applications often violate the optimal “data ink ratio” and obscure more data than they display.

I’m not disputing her larger point that we need to do a much better job of using data to make decisions on our campuses. And, don’t get me wrong, I love a good data visualization. But we already have the data she’s arguing for and plenty of very qualified statisticians, economists, policy analysts, and others who can analyse our data in some very useful ways.

The point she made that is more useful, is that we have to be open to the use of data, as opposed to instinct, conventional wisdom, or urban legends about “what our students are like” to make decisions. So, to take my earlier example about staff/faculty balance, I wonder what our data would tell us about the 10 or 15 year trend at Mason relative to that balance and how whatever decisions we have made about that balance have helped us or hindered us from achieving the goals we’ve set for ourselves.

This sort of question (and the willingness to be open to whatever the data say) is especially important at our institutions like ours, not only because of the questions we face going forward from 2012, but also because we are in the midst of writing a new strategic plan for that “going forward.” I agree completely with Walsh’s point that we need to let those data tell us what they say, not what we want them to say, and then use those data to help us with the decisions we need to make. But we also need to remember that data are not all. Intuition and institutional memory matter too.


The Future of Higher Education Conference (4)

The third panel of the #masonfuture conference was titled “Alternative Frameworks for Educational Delivery” and included Burck Smith, founder of StraighterLine, Andrew Rosen, Chairman and CEO of Kaplan, Inc., Sally Johnstone, VP of Academic Advancement at Western Governor’s University, and Jeff Offutt and Tyler Cowen, professors here at Mason.

I’m interested to hear how the reps of Kaplan and StraigherLine will respond to the argument that their business model is substantially threatened by the advent of MOOCs. If you could take an economics course from Tyler Cowen or from StraighterLine, which will you choose?

Not knowing much about StraigherLine before today, I was very interested to learn that their courses are “tutor supported” rather than “instructor supported.” In other words, students taking their courses are not being taught by individuals with deep content knowledge, but rather than by “tutors” who are knowledgeable in how to guide students through the online models created by the company. It’s certainly a very cost-efficient model, but what happens if Student X has a question that we might call an example of “critical thinking”? How can one of those tutors, who knows a lot about how to help students complete the models in the curriculum, respond to such a question? Probably not very well.

As Jeff Selingo sort of alluded to during the morning session, here is a crux of the value proposition of higher education. How we make that value proposition clear is going to say a lot about our prospects for success in the future.

Sally Johnstone of Western Governor’s University explained the WGU model of having students advance through a degree based on successfully completing a series of assessments rather than “completing a bunch of courses.” I think this is a very interesting model, but a quick look at their curriculum indicates that all of their degrees are in fields with external accreditation (nursing, business, education, etc.). In the humanities and social sciences (the fields I know best) we have very few of these external accreditations and so implementing such a model would require us to create those assessments ourselves — or found consortia, perhaps around our professional associations — that could create those for us.

In the history business, I suspect such assessments just can’t work for the simple reason that the whole process of developing history assessments has become so politicized (think the “history wars” of the 1990s) or the Florida legislature’s decisions about how history ought to be taught. We can certainly agree on skills, but we’ll never be allowed to agree on content.

Andrew Rosen from Kaplan argued for a very capitalist model around learning outcomes — “We need incentives around learning outcomes.” To what degree, I wonder, will the traditional universities be willing to cooperate with for profits such as Kaplan in an economic model like the one he proposes? Probably very little, because we have paid a lot for the expertise of our faculty. The only reason we’d be willing to license that expertise to a for profit competitor like Kaplan who might then use the results of that expertise against us in the future. I’d say that only if we had the sorts of strongly worded contracts that, say, two technology firms might have if they cross-license their patents.

Jeff Offutt told us about his experiences teaching online, but there wasn’t really much new in what he said, other than that his experience was good, his students are achieving a lot, and that he’s a fan. By contrast, Tyler Cowen’s presentation of MRUniversity laid out how to do what they do in very low tech and simple ways. What is not simple or low tech is developing the Tyler Cowen brand which, as he said, is the result of 10 years of co-blogging with Mason colleague Alex Tabarrok, and many well reviewed publications over the years. As Tyler and Alex are examples of those faculty members with “individual brands” that Jeff Selingo referred to in the morning  session.

One of the geniuses of the MRUniversity approach is that, as Cowen points out, economists around the world are contributing content, often at the level of a single video or resource, rather than being required to create an entire course as in the Coursera model. This gives MRUniversity much greater reach than Coursera.

A reasonable question is what is the value of MRUniversity to Cowen’s employer (Mason)? Certainly we get visibility out of it, but since Cowen seems to be sticking to his “we’re not charging anyone” for the content, how can Mason capitalize beyond exposure? This is a bigger question for universities in general about how to deal with faculty with strong individual brands who wander or step purposefully into the online educational marketplace?

Now, here’s a meta commentary on the event thus far. It seems to me that one of the messages being delivered today is based on an assumption that the audience in the room ranges from skeptical to hostile to online educational delivery and that the audience needs convincing that online delivery isas good or better than face to face instruction. I think that may be a misperception. Most, but certainly not all, of the faculty I know are not hostile to online education. Many are skeptical, but remember, academics are trained skeptics, so their skepticism is no surprise. Most, but certainly not all, are willing to see many flowers bloom, so long as the students seem to be learning to similar levels in either model.